The organs will be only the size of a lentil and will reportedly not be able to achieve thoughts or feelings.
It is hoped the research could be used to understand how the human brain has developed and became “cognitively special”.
“We want to know whether among those things, is there something hiding there that really sets us apart?”
Professor Svante Pääbo
Professor Svante Pääbo, who is leading the study, told the Guardian: “Neanderthals are the closest relatives to everyday humans, so if we should define ourselves as a group or a species it is really them that we should compare ourselves to.
“We want to know whether among those things, is there something hiding there that really sets us apart?
“Is there a biological basis for why modern humans went on to become millions and eventually billions of people, spread across the world and have culture?”
But the research could raise a major ethical dilemma.
The reanimated brains were kept in this state for 36 hours before they died and the team said the same procedure will work on primates – humans closest animal ancestor.
But leading academics branded the procedure nightmarish, saying if it was done on humans it would be a “living hell” for them.